Kings of Mac Dynasty (1527–1592):
- Mac Dinh Chi (1527-1541)
- Mac Dang Doanh (1527-1529)
- Mac Dang Dung (1529-1539)
- Mac Phuc Hai (1539-1545)
- Mac Phuc Nguyen (1545-1561)
- Mac Mau Hop (1561-1592)
The Mac Dynasty ruled the northern provinces of Vietnam from 1527 until 1592, when they lost control over the capital Hanoi for the last time. Later Mạc representatives ruled over the province of Cao Bang (with the direct support of the Chinese Qing dynasty) until 1677.
The founder of the Mạc Dynasty was a man who was related to a famous Trần Dynasty Confucian scholar named Mạc Đĩnh Chi. Unlike his ancestor, Mạc Đăng Dung chose to enter the military and ascended the ranks to become the senior general in the Vietnamese army. Later he seized power in a coup d’état and ruled Vietnam from 1527 till his death in 1541. Officially he resigned his position as Emperor in favor of his son but the reality was, he continued to rule.
Around 1520, a civil war started. This war would last, with occasional breaks, for the next 150 years. Apparently fearing the growing ambition of Mạc Đăng Dung, the young Emperor, Lê Chiêu Tông, fled to the south. A revolt started with the Trịnh and the Nguyễn families claiming to support the Emperor against the power of Mạc Đăng Dung. Mạc Đăng Dung responded by proclaimed the Emperor’s younger brother, Prince Xuan, was now the true Emperor and installed as Emperor under the name Lê Cung Hoàng. The revolt was ended, temporarily, when Mạc Đăng Dung’s forces captured and executed Lê Chiêu Tông along with the leaders of the revolt.